Population: 5 268 799

GDP: 259 600 000 000.00 $

Companies & Organizations: 29



Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory.



In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.



Population: 5,268,799 (2014)


Nationality: noun: Finn(s) adjective: Finnish


Ethnic groups: Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1%


Languages: Finnish (official) 94.2%, Swedish (official) 5.5%, other (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) 0.2%


Religions: Lutheran 78.4%, Orthodox 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.2%, none 19.2%




GDP: $ 259 600 000 000.00 (2013)

Military Organization


Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat; includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat).

Conflicts and Disputes


Various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands.

Geographical Information and Map


Capital: Helsinki


Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia. Long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain.


Geographic coordinates:

64 00 N, 26 00 E.



total: 338,145 sq km

land: 303,815 sq km

water: 34,330 sq km.


Land boundaries:

total: 2,563 km

border countries: Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1,309 km.


Coastline: 1,250 km.


Natural resources: timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone.