Population: 393 595

GDP: 2 270 000 000.00 $



A sultanate since the 12th century, the Maldives became a British protectorate in 1887. It became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom dominated the islands' political scene for 30 years, elected to six successive terms by single-party referendums. Following political demonstrations in the capital Male in August 2003, the president and his government pledged to embark upon a process of liberalization and democratic reforms, including a more representative political system and expanded political freedoms.



Progress was sluggish, however, and many promised reforms were slow to be realized. Nonetheless, political parties were legalized in 2005. In June 2008, a constituent assembly - termed the "Special Majlis" - finalized a new constitution, which was ratified by the president in August. The first-ever presidential elections under a multi-candidate, multi-party system were held in October 2008. Gayoom was defeated in a runoff poll by Mohamed Nasheed, a political activist who had been jailed several years earlier by the former regime. President Nasheed faced a number of challenges including strengthening democracy and combating poverty and drug abuse. In early February 2012, after several weeks of street protests following his sacking of a top judge, Nasheed resigned the presidency and handed over power to Vice President Mohammed Waheed Hassan Maniku.



In mid-2012, a Commission of National Inquiry was set by the government to probe events leading up to Nasheed's resignation. Though the commission found no evidence of a coup, the report recommended the need to strengthen the country's democratic institutions to avert similar events in the future, and to further investigate alleged police misconduct during the crisis. Maldivian officials have played a prominent role in international climate change discussions (due to the islands' low elevation and the threat from sea-level rise) on the UN Human Rights Council and in other international forums, as well as in encouraging regional cooperation, especially between India and Pakistan.



Population: 393,595 (2014).


Nationality: noun: Maldivian(s) adjective: Maldivian.


Ethnic groups: South Indians, Sinhalese, Arabs.


Languages: Dhivehi (official, dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English (spoken by most government officials).


Religions: Sunni Muslim (official).




GDP: $ 2 270 000 000.00 (2013).

Military Budget



Military Organization


Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF): Marine Corps, Security Protection Group, Coast Guard. The Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF), with its small size and with little serviceable equipment, is inadequate to prevent external aggression and is primarily tasked to reinforce the Maldives Police Service (MPS) and ensure security in the exclusive economic zone.

Geographical Information and Map


Capital: Male


Location: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. Smallest Asian country; archipelago of 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean.


Geographic coordinates:

3 15 N, 73 00 E



total: 298 sq km

land: 298 sq km

water: 0 sq km


Land boundaries: 0 km.


Coastline: 644 km.


Natural resources: fish.