Population: 28 929 716

GDP: 63 080 000 000.00 $



Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry.



Independent since 1991, the country has lessened its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. However, long-serving septuagenarian President Islom Karimov, who rose through the ranks of the Soviet-era State Planning Committee (Gosplan), remains wedded to the concepts of a command economy, creating a challenging environment for foreign investment. Current concerns include post-Karimov succession, terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.




Population: 28,929,716 (2014).


Nationality: noun: Uzbekistani, adjective: Uzbekistani.


Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5%.


Languages: Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%.


Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%.




GDP: $ 63 080 000 000.00 (2014).


Military Organization


Uzbek Armed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces.

Conflicts and Disputes


Prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas.



Uzbekistan is transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan.


Geographical Information and Map


Capital: Tashkent (Toshkent).


Location: Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan. Along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world.


Geographic coordinates:

41 00 N, 64 00 E.



total: 447,400 sq km

land: 425,400 sq km

water: 22,000 sq km


Land boundaries:

total: 6,893 km

border countries: Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km.


Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked). Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline.


Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum.